AHCC Research Association

Pre-Clinical and In Vitro Studies



Title of Article Publication Downloads Summary
Active hexose correlated compound enhances tumor surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses Cancer Immunology Immunother
AHCC's Beneficial Immuno Modulation Effects in the Thymus Endocrine Regulations

Supressive Effect of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on Thymic Apoptosis Induced by Dexamethasone in the Rat.

Anti-Tumor Effects of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP) and Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Biotherapy 2001; 15(3):379-382

Japanese researchers in partnership with researchers at University of California at Davis studied the combined effect of AHCC with GCP (Genistein Combined Polysaccharide), a fermented soybean isoflavone product with cancer-inhibiting properties. Both AHCC and GCP acted to inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Although both substances have cancer cell inhibiting properties the combined effect was more powerful. A synergistic effect with the combined substances was observed in suppressing tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. As in the cancer cell lines, the inhibitory effects were observed in groups with either AHCC or GCP alone, but the effect was more obvious in the AHCC plus GCP group. When the treatment was stopped, the size of the tumors rapidly increased. If treatment was resumed tumor growth was again suppressed.

Application of New Immunotherapy Using AHCC for Animal Disease Presentation

Application of the new immunotherapy using AHCC to the tumors of animals enhanced the CL activities of macrophages and NK cells. It was suggested that the new immunotherapy using AHCC might be effective on the tumor-bearing animals.

Augmentation of canine cellular immune response by administration of AHCC Presentation

Results showed that CL activities of macrophages, NK cells and neutrophils increased by administration of AHCC in canine with a dose dependent pattern. This result suggests that AHCC treatment might be effective for improvement of clinical state and anti-tumor effect.

Combination therapy of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC on Thymic Apoptosis Induced by Dexometasone in the Rat Endocrine Regulations 2006
Combination therapy of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC plus UFT significantly Reduces The metastasis of Rat Mamary Adenocarcinoma Anti-Cancer Drugs
Evaluation of Active Hexose Correlated Compound for the Prevention or Delay of Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancer Xenograft Model Cancer Prevention Research

A recent study conducted by MD Anderson Cancer Center looked at AHCC as a new alternative treatment to HPV (human papillomavirus). It examined the immune support supplement’s effect on two specific strains of the virus; the researchers concluded that daily dosing of AHCC successfully eradicated the expression of these strains in mice and may have a role in the prevention of HPV-related cancer.

H-2 Haplotype-Dependent Serum IL-12 in Tumor-Bearing Mice Treated with Various Mycelial Extracts Study Abstract

In this study, the MHC dependancy of IL-12 production induced by various mycelial extracts, PSK, AHCC and IL-X, was examined.



 

Topic Publication Downloads Summary
Ameliorative Effect of AHCC for Anticancer Drug Induced Side Effects Amino up Chemical CO., LTD

See PDF

Evaluation of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC Hepatic Metabolism and Potential for Drug Interactions with Chemotherapy Agents Journal of Social Integral Oncology

Interactions between drugs and even foods and other natural substances are an important new field of study, especially in the area of cancer treatment. Some drugs increase or decrease the activity of some of detoxifying enzymes in the liver. If these enzymes are inhibited, a drug can accumulate to dangerously toxic levels causing an overdose. On the other hand, if enzyme levels are increased (this is called “induction”), blood plasma levels of a drug might decrease to a low and ineffective level. These interactions with the detoxifying system can affect the choice of chemotherapy drugs or even the dosage level. AHCC is known to be well tolerated with no reported adverse effects. A team of Researchers from University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and Amino Up Chemical Company in Japan studied the effects of AHCC on important liver detoxification pathways. They studied important liver enzymes involved in drug metabolism cytochrome P-450 family of enzymes); this is a pathway through which many chemotherapy drugs are metabolized. The results showed that AHCC is unlikely to cause increased toxicity when combined with chemotherapy or supportive therapies, such as antidepressants and anti-nausea medications. AHCC does increase the activity of one single detoxification pathway. Further investigation is required to see if there is any interaction between AHCC and one type of drug that uses this pathway.

The Influence of AHCC on Cisplatin-Evoked Chemotherapeutic and Side Effects in Tumor-Bearing Mice Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

The possibility that AHCC could reduce the side effects of cisplatin was assessed in the tumour-bearing BALB/cA mice on the basis of the ability to ameliorate the cisplatin-induced body weight loss, anorexia, nephrotoxicity and hematopoietic toxcicity.



 

Topic Publication Downloads Summary
AHCC Protects the Liver Natural Medicine

Carbon tetrachloride is a very toxic, harsh chemical that is used in research to create an experimental hepatitis model. In mice with liver injury, typical symptoms include weight loss, loss of appetite, elevated inflammatory enzymes and swelling of the liver. A group that took AHCC along with carbon tetrachloride showed less swelling, fewer fatty deposits in the liver, a significantly lower level of inflammatory enzymes, higher levels of drug metabolizing enzymes, and normal levels of hormone metabolizing enzymes. There was also less weight loss and apparent loss of appetite in the AHCC-treated group.

Effect of AHCC on the Production of Nitric Oxide in Hepatocytes Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

In this study, the possibility of AHCC regulation of nitric oxide production by inducible nitric oxide synthase was pursued as a potential liver-producing machanism.

Supressive Effects of AHCC on the Increased Activity of Hepatic and Renal Ornithine Decarboxylase Induced by Oxidative Stress Life Sciences

Ferric nitrilotriacetate, which generates hydroxyl radicals in vivo, was given to rats and AHCC was tested for it's ability to suppress oxidative stress and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in the liver and kidney



 

Topic Publication Downloads Summary
Active Hexose Correlated Compound Enhanced the Immune Function of Mice in the Hindlimb-Unloading Model of Spaceflight Conditions Journal of Applied Physiology

Another study on mice subjected to spaceflight conditions was designed to figure out how AHCC strengthens resistance to infection in this research model. They found that AHCC increases the secretion of certain cytokines that protect cellular immunity, including interferon, and an increase in nitric oxide production, which has a beneficial effect in controlling bacterial infections.

AHCC Activate Immune Function to Decrease Bacterial Load in Murine Model of Intramuscular Infection The American Journal of Surgery

The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanisms by which AHCC increases survival in a mouse model of intramuscular infection.

AHCC can Reduce the Severity of Influenza The Journal of Nutrition, Nutritional Immunology

There are no reliable treatments for epidemic viral infections. That’s why threat of infections like bird flu and West Nile virus cause such an uproar in the media and urgent warnings from governments and public health officials. Antibiotics are not of use in treating viral infections even though thousands of people get prescriptions for them for common respiratory infections in winter, which are almost always viral. For years clinicians observed that AHCC appeared to be effective for preventing and treating common infections. Influenza is the most common of the possibly dangerous viral infections. Influenza rates are highest in young children who do not yet have fully developed immune systems. It is also a significant cause of death in the population aged 65 and older. In children, without immunity to previous exposure to influenza virus NK (“Natural Killer” scavenger white cells) cell activity is an important source of protection. Depletion of NK cells increases the rate of mortality in mice infected with influenza. A study at Drexel University showed that AHCC increased the rate of survival of young mice with influenza infection. AHCC-treated mice also showed less weight loss. Lung virus levels were also reduced in the AHCC-treated group. Lung tissue showed rapid signs of healing and restoring the mucous membranes. The mice treated with AHCC also showed stronger NK cell activity. AHCC has been reported to increase the number of NK cells in aged mice. Future studies may show whether NK cell activity is increased in aged immune systems but there is already evidence that it increases activity in cancer patients.

AHCC Enhances Resistance to Infection in a Mouse Model of Surgical Wound Infection Surgical Infections

The objective of this study was to test the prophylactic effects of oral administration of ahcc, a natural immunoenhancer, on survival in a mouse model of surgical soft tissue infection.

AHCC Enhances Resistance to Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infection in Mice Journal of Applied Physiology

The relation between stress and immunity has been studied extensively with various types of stressors. One unusual type of stress is that experienced in spaceflight conditions. Researchers at Morehouse School of Medicine used a model that simulates spaceflight in mice. One of the effects of stress from spaceflight is impaired immune response and resistance to infection. Mice subjected to these conditions similar to spaceflight were infected with the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, a bacterium that causes pneumonia and other diseases and is often antibiotic-resistant. Klebsiella tends to occur in people with weakened immune systems or underlying chronic diseases. The conclusion of the study was that mice pre-treated with AHCC followed by continued treatment with AHCC were significantly safer from death from Klebsiella infection. Greater effects from AHCC were found in mice that had suppressed immunity. Mice treated with AHCC were protected to a greater extent than normally caged mice. This suggests that AHCC may be even more effective when there are defects in the immune system.

AHCC Normalizes Immune Function AHCC Research 9th Symposium

These observations also highlight an important feature of AHCC: it is an immunomodulator. This means that it supports the immune system in its needs according to the individual condition of its balance. It will always help move the immune system in the direction of balance. For example, we have seen that AHCC stimulates the secretion of cytokines like TNF (tumor necrosis factor) in test animals as well as human cancer patients. However, TNF is a marker of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, and AHCC will lower TNF if the body’s imbalance leans toward too much inflammation. Another interesting aspect of Dr. Yui’s research is the fact that the anti-inflammatory hormone leptin also plays a key role in fat metabolism and even appetite. Preliminary experimental trials show that there is the possibility of using AHCC both for inflammatory diseases and even for weight control.

AHCC on Immobilization Stress in Rat: Beneficial Effects of AHCC Dokkyo Journal of Medical Science

Medical research in recent years has shown an important link between stress and immunity. If we have stress over a long time period or a significant trauma, it has been shown to be an important factor in infection. The main cause of “late death” after a trauma is infection. This means that if the trauma itself was not lethal, the damage to the immune system causes a severe vulnerability to breakdown resulting in a potentially fatal infection. The first step was to see what effects AHCC might have on the direct effects of stress in the body. Immobilization creates psychological stress that is measured by blood levels of adrenalin and noradrenalin, the flight or fight hormones, blood sugar and the brain chemical dopamine. Rats subjected to immobilization for several hours were tested for these stress indicators. A group of rats pre-treated with AHCC had normal blood sugar levels, normal levels of flight or fight hormones and normal dopamine levels.

AHCC Protects the Thymus Gland Endocrine Regulations

The thymus gland is a central organ of the immune system. Breakdown of thymus tissue (thymic apoptosis) indicates impaired effectiveness of the immune system. Researchers at Dokkyo University in Japan used a drug to cause breakdown of thymus gland tissue in rats and found that AHCC prevents damage to the thymus tissue. Because there was a delay in the protective effect of AHCC, they concluded that the mechanism was the influence of AHCC on regulating the balance of chemical messengers or the prevention of damage from oxidative stress, but this effect of protecting the thymus gland has been clearly observed, but is not yet fully explained.

AHCC Significantly Raised the Survival Rate of Avian Flu 15th International Symposium of the AHCC Research Association

A study on avian flu was conducted at the College of Veterinary Medicine at the South China Agricultural University. The H5N1 virus was administered nasally to two groups of mice, one group pre-treated with AHCC. The death rate was recorded from 14 days after infection and the post-infection survival rates were compared between the two groups. All mice in the untreated control group were dead by the 11th day post-infection. In the AHCC-treated group 20% of the mice were still alive 21 days post-infection. In the control group 50% were dead at the end of 8 days. In the AHCC group the 50% mark was the 11th day. AHCC significantly raised the survival rate, and even after re-infection with the virus on the 21st and 28th days after treatment the survival rate stayed at 20-30%. . A second study combined AHCC with a vaccine made from inactivated avian flu virus to test its properties as an adjuvant for immunization of laboratory mice. The rate of survival using the vaccine alone was 80%, but with AHCC supplementation the survival rate was. 100%! AHCC alone can be considered as a preventive treatment for avian flu infection but it may be even more useful as a vaccine adjuvant.

Independant Comparison of NK Activity in AHCC and MGN-3 Hokkaido University

See PDF

Low-dose supplementation with active hexose correlated compoundimproves the immune response to acute influenza infection inC57BL/6 mice Department of Biology Drexel University
Nutritional Food Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC Enhances Resistance Against Bird Flu Japanese Journal of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine
Oral Administration of Active Hexose Correlated Compound Enhances Host Resistance to WestNile Encephalitis in Mice Journal of Nutrition Science and Vitaminology

In this study, young and aged mice were given AHCC or water, followed by the West Nile Virus. AHCC- treated mice had a reduced mortaility rate than those administered water.

Role of AHCC in Helping to Build up Immunity Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Nutritional Food Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Enhances Resistance Against Bird Flu.

Supplementation with active hexose correlated compound increases survival following infectious challenge in mice Emerging Science
Supplementation with Active Hexose Correlated Compound Increases the Innate Immune response of young mice to Primary Influenza Infection Journal of Nutrition


 

Topic Publication Downloads Summary
AHCC Acts as a Prebiotic and is Antinflammatory in Rats with Hapten Colitis The Journal of Nutrition

Rats recieved AHCC daily starting 2 days before colitis induction and were killed 6 days later. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methodsl The effect of AHCC on the colonic microflora was also assesed by studying the bacterua profile in feces by standard culture techniques.

AHCC is Anti-Inflammatory AHCC Research Association 7th Symposium

Inflammation is part of a normal healing process for maintaining normal body function, but chronic inflammation that doesn’t resolve is a major cause of pain, tissue damage and chronic, degenerative diseases. Inflammation is found in such diverse disorders as asthma, arthritis, allergies and heart disease. Anti-inflammatory drugs have been a source of many uncomfortable side effects. Steroids cause damage to immunity, the liver and can cause many uncomfortable side effects, including exhaustion and irritability. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) also have severe side effects, especially bleeding in the stomach and intestines. The newer COX-2 inhibitors had dangerous side effects to the heart. Doctors using AHCC have noticed what appear to be anti-inflammatory effects of AHCC and it has been used in informal experiments. Dr, Satoru Yui of Teikyo University Department of Pharmacology found that AHCC increases levels of an anti-inflammatory hormone called leptin. He also showed that AHCC inhibited production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and decreased levels of another inflammatory marker, calprotectin. Dr. Yui has reported anti-inflammatory effects in cases of skin inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

AHCC may Prevent and Treat Diabetes Biomedical Research

There is evidence that AHCC could have a preventive effect on diabetes. Both oxidative stress and inflammation may play a role in Type 2 (adult onset) diabetes. Inflammation seems to interfere somehow with the efficient use of insulin and inflammation may also cause breakdown in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Dr. Koji Wakame, of the Dokkyo University School of Medicine used a drug to induce diabetes in rats. Rats given the drug STZ (Streptozotocin) were compared with rats given the drug but pre-treated for one week with AHCC. The group treated with STZ alone lost weight, lost fur, which had a poor general appearance, increased their water intake, a typical diabetic symptom and had a decrease in insulin and a corresponding rise in blood sugar level. Blood markers indicating stress on the liver were also elevated. In the AHCC-treated group, the general quality of the rats’ appearance was normal, with no fur loss and a slight weight gain. Also in the AHCC-treated rats, water intake was not increased, serum insulin levels were normal and blood sugar remained fairly stable. The liver markers also remained normal in the AHCC-treated group. Microscopic examination of the insulin-producing cells in the rats’ pancreas revealed a decreased number of the cells in the STZ-only group and only a slightly decreased number in the group treated with STZ and AHCC. The conclusion of the study was that AHCC can have a significant effect in preventing the onset of diabetes by protecting the pancreas cells that produce insulin.

Amelioration by Active Hexose Correlated Compound of Endocrine Disturbances Induced by Oxidative Stress In a Rat Endocrine Regulations
Preventive Effects of AHCC on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Nitrilotriacetate in the Rat Dokkyo Journal of Medical Science

Oxidative stress is a term to describe damaging effects of oxygen on normal cells. The effects of oxidative stress are like a type of “biological rust.” It has widespread effects in the aging process including the production of “free radicals,” and “reactive oxygen species” (ROS), which are unstable and can attach to tissues and damage them. Antioxidants are used to support the normal regulation of cells. A diet rich in antioxidants, especially vegetables and fruits is recommended along with various antioxidant supplements, including vitamins. Research at Dokkyo University School of Medicine has shown that AHCC protects against oxidative stress. Rats were given a powerful oxidant used in research to induce oxidative stress and ROS. This chemical (Ferric nitrilotriacetate) can cause cancer and damage various organs, especially the kidney and liver. The effects of the oxidant chemical were measured in four ways: (1) Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes; (2) creatinine, a marker of kidney damage; (3) Serum AST and ALT, markers of liver damage; (4) Thymic apoptosis, a marker for loss of immunity. Pre-treatment with AHCC showed protective effects with all four of these factors. In the pre-treated rats the urinary 8-OHdG was significantly lower; the serum creatinine was restored to normal in the AHCC group. The liver damage markers were significantly decreased in the AHCC group and thymic apoptosis was much lower. These results suggest a wide-ranging, high level of protection from oxidative stress.

Protective Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC on the Onset of Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin in Rats Biomedicl Research
Recent Progress of Research on AHCC Amino up Chemical CO., LTD

See PDF

The Development and Application of AHCC - A Review Bioindustry

Active Hexose Correlated Compund Enhances Tumor Surveillance Through Regulating Both Inate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

Use of Animal Models for Space Flight Physiology Studies, with Special Focus on the Immune System Dept of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University

Recent work using animals to study the effects of space fligh tconditions on the immune system will be highlighted in this review.



 

Topic Publication Downloads Summary
Active hexose correlated compound enhances tumor surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses Cancer Immunology Immunother
AHCC's Beneficial Immuno Modulation Effects in the Thymus Endocrine Regulations

Supressive Effect of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on Thymic Apoptosis Induced by Dexamethasone in the Rat.

Anti-Tumor Effects of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP) and Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Biotherapy 2001; 15(3):379-382

Japanese researchers in partnership with researchers at University of California at Davis studied the combined effect of AHCC with GCP (Genistein Combined Polysaccharide), a fermented soybean isoflavone product with cancer-inhibiting properties. Both AHCC and GCP acted to inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Although both substances have cancer cell inhibiting properties the combined effect was more powerful. A synergistic effect with the combined substances was observed in suppressing tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. As in the cancer cell lines, the inhibitory effects were observed in groups with either AHCC or GCP alone, but the effect was more obvious in the AHCC plus GCP group. When the treatment was stopped, the size of the tumors rapidly increased. If treatment was resumed tumor growth was again suppressed.

Application of New Immunotherapy Using AHCC for Animal Disease Presentation

Application of the new immunotherapy using AHCC to the tumors of animals enhanced the CL activities of macrophages and NK cells. It was suggested that the new immunotherapy using AHCC might be effective on the tumor-bearing animals.

Augmentation of canine cellular immune response by administration of AHCC Presentation

Results showed that CL activities of macrophages, NK cells and neutrophils increased by administration of AHCC in canine with a dose dependent pattern. This result suggests that AHCC treatment might be effective for improvement of clinical state and anti-tumor effect.

Combination therapy of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC on Thymic Apoptosis Induced by Dexometasone in the Rat Endocrine Regulations 2006
Combination therapy of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC plus UFT significantly Reduces The metastasis of Rat Mamary Adenocarcinoma Anti-Cancer Drugs
Evaluation of Active Hexose Correlated Compound for the Prevention or Delay of Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancer Xenograft Model Cancer Prevention Research

A recent study conducted by MD Anderson Cancer Center looked at AHCC as a new alternative treatment to HPV (human papillomavirus). It examined the immune support supplement’s effect on two specific strains of the virus; the researchers concluded that daily dosing of AHCC successfully eradicated the expression of these strains in mice and may have a role in the prevention of HPV-related cancer.

H-2 Haplotype-Dependent Serum IL-12 in Tumor-Bearing Mice Treated with Various Mycelial Extracts Study Abstract

In this study, the MHC dependancy of IL-12 production induced by various mycelial extracts, PSK, AHCC and IL-X, was examined.

Ameliorative Effect of AHCC for Anticancer Drug Induced Side Effects Amino up Chemical CO., LTD

See PDF

Evaluation of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC Hepatic Metabolism and Potential for Drug Interactions with Chemotherapy Agents Journal of Social Integral Oncology

Interactions between drugs and even foods and other natural substances are an important new field of study, especially in the area of cancer treatment. Some drugs increase or decrease the activity of some of detoxifying enzymes in the liver. If these enzymes are inhibited, a drug can accumulate to dangerously toxic levels causing an overdose. On the other hand, if enzyme levels are increased (this is called “induction”), blood plasma levels of a drug might decrease to a low and ineffective level. These interactions with the detoxifying system can affect the choice of chemotherapy drugs or even the dosage level. AHCC is known to be well tolerated with no reported adverse effects. A team of Researchers from University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and Amino Up Chemical Company in Japan studied the effects of AHCC on important liver detoxification pathways. They studied important liver enzymes involved in drug metabolism cytochrome P-450 family of enzymes); this is a pathway through which many chemotherapy drugs are metabolized. The results showed that AHCC is unlikely to cause increased toxicity when combined with chemotherapy or supportive therapies, such as antidepressants and anti-nausea medications. AHCC does increase the activity of one single detoxification pathway. Further investigation is required to see if there is any interaction between AHCC and one type of drug that uses this pathway.

The Influence of AHCC on Cisplatin-Evoked Chemotherapeutic and Side Effects in Tumor-Bearing Mice Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

The possibility that AHCC could reduce the side effects of cisplatin was assessed in the tumour-bearing BALB/cA mice on the basis of the ability to ameliorate the cisplatin-induced body weight loss, anorexia, nephrotoxicity and hematopoietic toxcicity.

AHCC Protects the Liver Natural Medicine

Carbon tetrachloride is a very toxic, harsh chemical that is used in research to create an experimental hepatitis model. In mice with liver injury, typical symptoms include weight loss, loss of appetite, elevated inflammatory enzymes and swelling of the liver. A group that took AHCC along with carbon tetrachloride showed less swelling, fewer fatty deposits in the liver, a significantly lower level of inflammatory enzymes, higher levels of drug metabolizing enzymes, and normal levels of hormone metabolizing enzymes. There was also less weight loss and apparent loss of appetite in the AHCC-treated group.

Effect of AHCC on the Production of Nitric Oxide in Hepatocytes Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

In this study, the possibility of AHCC regulation of nitric oxide production by inducible nitric oxide synthase was pursued as a potential liver-producing machanism.

Supressive Effects of AHCC on the Increased Activity of Hepatic and Renal Ornithine Decarboxylase Induced by Oxidative Stress Life Sciences

Ferric nitrilotriacetate, which generates hydroxyl radicals in vivo, was given to rats and AHCC was tested for it's ability to suppress oxidative stress and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in the liver and kidney

Active Hexose Correlated Compound Enhanced the Immune Function of Mice in the Hindlimb-Unloading Model of Spaceflight Conditions Journal of Applied Physiology

Another study on mice subjected to spaceflight conditions was designed to figure out how AHCC strengthens resistance to infection in this research model. They found that AHCC increases the secretion of certain cytokines that protect cellular immunity, including interferon, and an increase in nitric oxide production, which has a beneficial effect in controlling bacterial infections.

AHCC Activate Immune Function to Decrease Bacterial Load in Murine Model of Intramuscular Infection The American Journal of Surgery

The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanisms by which AHCC increases survival in a mouse model of intramuscular infection.

AHCC can Reduce the Severity of Influenza The Journal of Nutrition, Nutritional Immunology

There are no reliable treatments for epidemic viral infections. That’s why threat of infections like bird flu and West Nile virus cause such an uproar in the media and urgent warnings from governments and public health officials. Antibiotics are not of use in treating viral infections even though thousands of people get prescriptions for them for common respiratory infections in winter, which are almost always viral. For years clinicians observed that AHCC appeared to be effective for preventing and treating common infections. Influenza is the most common of the possibly dangerous viral infections. Influenza rates are highest in young children who do not yet have fully developed immune systems. It is also a significant cause of death in the population aged 65 and older. In children, without immunity to previous exposure to influenza virus NK (“Natural Killer” scavenger white cells) cell activity is an important source of protection. Depletion of NK cells increases the rate of mortality in mice infected with influenza. A study at Drexel University showed that AHCC increased the rate of survival of young mice with influenza infection. AHCC-treated mice also showed less weight loss. Lung virus levels were also reduced in the AHCC-treated group. Lung tissue showed rapid signs of healing and restoring the mucous membranes. The mice treated with AHCC also showed stronger NK cell activity. AHCC has been reported to increase the number of NK cells in aged mice. Future studies may show whether NK cell activity is increased in aged immune systems but there is already evidence that it increases activity in cancer patients.

AHCC Enhances Resistance to Infection in a Mouse Model of Surgical Wound Infection Surgical Infections

The objective of this study was to test the prophylactic effects of oral administration of ahcc, a natural immunoenhancer, on survival in a mouse model of surgical soft tissue infection.

AHCC Enhances Resistance to Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infection in Mice Journal of Applied Physiology

The relation between stress and immunity has been studied extensively with various types of stressors. One unusual type of stress is that experienced in spaceflight conditions. Researchers at Morehouse School of Medicine used a model that simulates spaceflight in mice. One of the effects of stress from spaceflight is impaired immune response and resistance to infection. Mice subjected to these conditions similar to spaceflight were infected with the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, a bacterium that causes pneumonia and other diseases and is often antibiotic-resistant. Klebsiella tends to occur in people with weakened immune systems or underlying chronic diseases. The conclusion of the study was that mice pre-treated with AHCC followed by continued treatment with AHCC were significantly safer from death from Klebsiella infection. Greater effects from AHCC were found in mice that had suppressed immunity. Mice treated with AHCC were protected to a greater extent than normally caged mice. This suggests that AHCC may be even more effective when there are defects in the immune system.

AHCC Normalizes Immune Function AHCC Research 9th Symposium

These observations also highlight an important feature of AHCC: it is an immunomodulator. This means that it supports the immune system in its needs according to the individual condition of its balance. It will always help move the immune system in the direction of balance. For example, we have seen that AHCC stimulates the secretion of cytokines like TNF (tumor necrosis factor) in test animals as well as human cancer patients. However, TNF is a marker of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, and AHCC will lower TNF if the body’s imbalance leans toward too much inflammation. Another interesting aspect of Dr. Yui’s research is the fact that the anti-inflammatory hormone leptin also plays a key role in fat metabolism and even appetite. Preliminary experimental trials show that there is the possibility of using AHCC both for inflammatory diseases and even for weight control.

AHCC on Immobilization Stress in Rat: Beneficial Effects of AHCC Dokkyo Journal of Medical Science

Medical research in recent years has shown an important link between stress and immunity. If we have stress over a long time period or a significant trauma, it has been shown to be an important factor in infection. The main cause of “late death” after a trauma is infection. This means that if the trauma itself was not lethal, the damage to the immune system causes a severe vulnerability to breakdown resulting in a potentially fatal infection. The first step was to see what effects AHCC might have on the direct effects of stress in the body. Immobilization creates psychological stress that is measured by blood levels of adrenalin and noradrenalin, the flight or fight hormones, blood sugar and the brain chemical dopamine. Rats subjected to immobilization for several hours were tested for these stress indicators. A group of rats pre-treated with AHCC had normal blood sugar levels, normal levels of flight or fight hormones and normal dopamine levels.

AHCC Protects the Thymus Gland Endocrine Regulations

The thymus gland is a central organ of the immune system. Breakdown of thymus tissue (thymic apoptosis) indicates impaired effectiveness of the immune system. Researchers at Dokkyo University in Japan used a drug to cause breakdown of thymus gland tissue in rats and found that AHCC prevents damage to the thymus tissue. Because there was a delay in the protective effect of AHCC, they concluded that the mechanism was the influence of AHCC on regulating the balance of chemical messengers or the prevention of damage from oxidative stress, but this effect of protecting the thymus gland has been clearly observed, but is not yet fully explained.

AHCC Significantly Raised the Survival Rate of Avian Flu 15th International Symposium of the AHCC Research Association

A study on avian flu was conducted at the College of Veterinary Medicine at the South China Agricultural University. The H5N1 virus was administered nasally to two groups of mice, one group pre-treated with AHCC. The death rate was recorded from 14 days after infection and the post-infection survival rates were compared between the two groups. All mice in the untreated control group were dead by the 11th day post-infection. In the AHCC-treated group 20% of the mice were still alive 21 days post-infection. In the control group 50% were dead at the end of 8 days. In the AHCC group the 50% mark was the 11th day. AHCC significantly raised the survival rate, and even after re-infection with the virus on the 21st and 28th days after treatment the survival rate stayed at 20-30%. . A second study combined AHCC with a vaccine made from inactivated avian flu virus to test its properties as an adjuvant for immunization of laboratory mice. The rate of survival using the vaccine alone was 80%, but with AHCC supplementation the survival rate was. 100%! AHCC alone can be considered as a preventive treatment for avian flu infection but it may be even more useful as a vaccine adjuvant.

Independant Comparison of NK Activity in AHCC and MGN-3 Hokkaido University

See PDF

Low-dose supplementation with active hexose correlated compoundimproves the immune response to acute influenza infection inC57BL/6 mice Department of Biology Drexel University
Nutritional Food Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC Enhances Resistance Against Bird Flu Japanese Journal of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine
Oral Administration of Active Hexose Correlated Compound Enhances Host Resistance to WestNile Encephalitis in Mice Journal of Nutrition Science and Vitaminology

In this study, young and aged mice were given AHCC or water, followed by the West Nile Virus. AHCC- treated mice had a reduced mortaility rate than those administered water.

Role of AHCC in Helping to Build up Immunity Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Nutritional Food Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Enhances Resistance Against Bird Flu.

Supplementation with active hexose correlated compound increases survival following infectious challenge in mice Emerging Science
Supplementation with Active Hexose Correlated Compound Increases the Innate Immune response of young mice to Primary Influenza Infection Journal of Nutrition
AHCC Acts as a Prebiotic and is Antinflammatory in Rats with Hapten Colitis The Journal of Nutrition

Rats recieved AHCC daily starting 2 days before colitis induction and were killed 6 days later. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methodsl The effect of AHCC on the colonic microflora was also assesed by studying the bacterua profile in feces by standard culture techniques.

AHCC is Anti-Inflammatory AHCC Research Association 7th Symposium

Inflammation is part of a normal healing process for maintaining normal body function, but chronic inflammation that doesn’t resolve is a major cause of pain, tissue damage and chronic, degenerative diseases. Inflammation is found in such diverse disorders as asthma, arthritis, allergies and heart disease. Anti-inflammatory drugs have been a source of many uncomfortable side effects. Steroids cause damage to immunity, the liver and can cause many uncomfortable side effects, including exhaustion and irritability. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) also have severe side effects, especially bleeding in the stomach and intestines. The newer COX-2 inhibitors had dangerous side effects to the heart. Doctors using AHCC have noticed what appear to be anti-inflammatory effects of AHCC and it has been used in informal experiments. Dr, Satoru Yui of Teikyo University Department of Pharmacology found that AHCC increases levels of an anti-inflammatory hormone called leptin. He also showed that AHCC inhibited production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and decreased levels of another inflammatory marker, calprotectin. Dr. Yui has reported anti-inflammatory effects in cases of skin inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

AHCC may Prevent and Treat Diabetes Biomedical Research

There is evidence that AHCC could have a preventive effect on diabetes. Both oxidative stress and inflammation may play a role in Type 2 (adult onset) diabetes. Inflammation seems to interfere somehow with the efficient use of insulin and inflammation may also cause breakdown in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Dr. Koji Wakame, of the Dokkyo University School of Medicine used a drug to induce diabetes in rats. Rats given the drug STZ (Streptozotocin) were compared with rats given the drug but pre-treated for one week with AHCC. The group treated with STZ alone lost weight, lost fur, which had a poor general appearance, increased their water intake, a typical diabetic symptom and had a decrease in insulin and a corresponding rise in blood sugar level. Blood markers indicating stress on the liver were also elevated. In the AHCC-treated group, the general quality of the rats’ appearance was normal, with no fur loss and a slight weight gain. Also in the AHCC-treated rats, water intake was not increased, serum insulin levels were normal and blood sugar remained fairly stable. The liver markers also remained normal in the AHCC-treated group. Microscopic examination of the insulin-producing cells in the rats’ pancreas revealed a decreased number of the cells in the STZ-only group and only a slightly decreased number in the group treated with STZ and AHCC. The conclusion of the study was that AHCC can have a significant effect in preventing the onset of diabetes by protecting the pancreas cells that produce insulin.

Amelioration by Active Hexose Correlated Compound of Endocrine Disturbances Induced by Oxidative Stress In a Rat Endocrine Regulations
Preventive Effects of AHCC on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Nitrilotriacetate in the Rat Dokkyo Journal of Medical Science

Oxidative stress is a term to describe damaging effects of oxygen on normal cells. The effects of oxidative stress are like a type of “biological rust.” It has widespread effects in the aging process including the production of “free radicals,” and “reactive oxygen species” (ROS), which are unstable and can attach to tissues and damage them. Antioxidants are used to support the normal regulation of cells. A diet rich in antioxidants, especially vegetables and fruits is recommended along with various antioxidant supplements, including vitamins. Research at Dokkyo University School of Medicine has shown that AHCC protects against oxidative stress. Rats were given a powerful oxidant used in research to induce oxidative stress and ROS. This chemical (Ferric nitrilotriacetate) can cause cancer and damage various organs, especially the kidney and liver. The effects of the oxidant chemical were measured in four ways: (1) Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes; (2) creatinine, a marker of kidney damage; (3) Serum AST and ALT, markers of liver damage; (4) Thymic apoptosis, a marker for loss of immunity. Pre-treatment with AHCC showed protective effects with all four of these factors. In the pre-treated rats the urinary 8-OHdG was significantly lower; the serum creatinine was restored to normal in the AHCC group. The liver damage markers were significantly decreased in the AHCC group and thymic apoptosis was much lower. These results suggest a wide-ranging, high level of protection from oxidative stress.

Protective Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound AHCC on the Onset of Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin in Rats Biomedicl Research
Recent Progress of Research on AHCC Amino up Chemical CO., LTD

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The Development and Application of AHCC - A Review Bioindustry

Active Hexose Correlated Compund Enhances Tumor Surveillance Through Regulating Both Inate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

Use of Animal Models for Space Flight Physiology Studies, with Special Focus on the Immune System Dept of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University

Recent work using animals to study the effects of space fligh tconditions on the immune system will be highlighted in this review.